In this study overall issues, not just individual family/genealogical relationships, have arisen that have not been resolved. Each will now be listed as to ignore them would be unwise in a research project.
Substitute records for two time periods
There are two periods where availability of records is scant. One is the historical period of 12OO to 1500, where there is a need to find examples of the name O’hAngluinn. The second is the period 1550-1700 where little has been uncovered regarding the Anglin name or its variants in an Irish geographic or occupational setting.
Substitute records for ships manifests and passenger lists
No satisfactory substitutes have yet been identified to deal with the movement of people pre the introduction of ships manifests. Some work has been done on court records, but has not benefited this study.
The movement of Anglins out of Ireland in the 17th /18th centuries
Emigration is part of the Anglin story. The tracing of the actual movement of individuals from Ireland after the introduction of Passenger lists and manifests is straightforward. Those lists become available in the later half of the 19th century. Such lists may give a person’s origin and destination. But prior their introduction there is difficulty.
What then is sought is information from substitute sources within Ireland showing a named individual and the place he left, and records within a receiving country showing the same individual’s place of destination etc. An example is a death record of John Anglin, the patriarch of the ‘Bristol Anglins, which gives his birth place as Cork City and from the recorded age at death allows a calculated birth date circa 1786. In this case the record is speaking of Bristol England and Cork City Ireland. Such a record gives hope to a researcher. This absence of evidence of actual movements has been a major problem in this study.
This surname seems to be quite unique not just to County Cork but also to an area of North County Cork in the vicinity of Mallow / Boherbue, an area historically referred to as Slieve Luchra. In the records this name has not spread far geographically. In Appendix 8 is a group of past Anglands. Having examined the scholars, Woulfe and Maclysaght, there seems to be an absence of clarity as to the source of the Angland name. So putting it quite simply there is vagueness here and hopefully one day someone will bring clarity to this issue. My experience on asking Cork people about Anglins is the common response “They are mostly in North Cork but they spell the name Angland”!!
Anglin versus Anglim
While there are variations, the Anglin / Anglim spelling is the more commonly used. I have found in the same record a father and son given a different surname spelling, really just a misspelling. I believe the two names are a matter of different spellings caused in times past by a scribe, or through a spelling given by a person who was not literate. I have not proved this to be always the case, so I must admit this view may be wrong and there may be real reasons for the Anglim Anglin spellings. I notice the Anglim form in Ireland occurs mostly outside County Cork and indeed is often the more common spelling in Counties Clare, Tipperary, Wexford cf. evidence in Appendix 1 for these counties or in Griffith’s valuations listed in Appendix 8. However there is a Tipperary line where both spellings are used. This raises the question are their historic reasons for a ‘different spelling’ occurring outside County Cork. Again, no answer presently.
Catholic / Protestant Anglins
Serious research says this issue must be considered, not as an examination of individuals but rather as an effort to gain clarity as to why two different lanes grew. To date I have not solved the riddle. Since the name Anglin is derived from O’hAngluinn a name predating the Reformation then the movement of Anglins would be from Catholic to Protestant.
The purpose of research is to open and resolve the story of the Anglins. So a question arises why is it the early Anglins in the USA seem to be of the Reformed faith? I was also going to ask why are so few protestant Anglins still living in Ireland today, but I realise the question is why are so few Anglins of any denomination still living in Ireland today.
The 1703 Act demanded converts from Catholicism to Protestantism prove their conformity to their new beliefs. The Convert Rolls prepared by O’Beirne using this data have only one example of the lane change by an Anglin. This suggests the formation of the Protestant line of Anglins is much earlier, possible in the 16th century.
Marriage licence bonds
An investigation into these may assist in the Catholic Protestant link. The National Archives holds a list of Anglins/hanglins who had taken out marriage bonds. It does not mean they married but it is probable they did. They would have been mostly of the reformed faith but a few were Catholic. No information is given of the parish they belonged to, so some guess work and a lot of painstaking examination of parish records in required. The bonds merely record two names and a year.
Have Anglins a relationship with continental Europe and its colonies?
I have examined this. There were Anglins who went to continental Europe and while rare, the name is rare anyhow, the name is present today in Portugal, Spain and Argentina. Historically trade and migration links between the continent and ports in county Cork, particularly Waterford, grew immensely in the 1600’s. The Irish and wine is a trade story in itself. Today some continental vineyards are owned by people of Irish descent.
Were Anglins in this movement to and from the Continent in the 16th and 17th Century? Recent University research into Ireland’s links with Europe in the past has already been helpful cf. chapter 10 and appendix 5. There was a movement of Anglins, but how extensive remains to be discovered.
Further developments on Chaper 7
1 The Anglands
Besides chapter 7, reference was also made to Anglands in chapters 2 and 3 particularly in their footnotes. I commence by expressing my thanks to Diarmuid O’Murhuadha, author of ‘Family Names of County Cork’ who strongly redirected my thoughts in this matter.
This surname ‘Angland’ became a problem due to an entry in an early edition of MacLysaght in which it is suggested the most common form of O’hAngluinn / Anglin in Griffiths Valuations of 1850 in North Cork was Angland. (This view seemed to change in later editions).
The Gaeilge form of Angland is Aingleont. So the question, ‘Is there a relationship between Aingleont / Angland and Anglin?’
A Separate Note for DNA Researchers
From a point of view of the DNA researchers there is still a real possibility that some, and I repeat just some, O’hAnglainns in the process of Anglicisation of their surname simply used this already existing old English/Norman name, Angland, as the English form of their Gaeilge surname instead of going for Anglin or Hanglin.
For DNA researchers this raises a complication as then the DNA profile for some Anglands would be of the O’hAnglainn line while others could be of the de Anglond line.
It is interesting these fringe individuals of the Fiants belong to Cloyne / the North Cork area and not West Cork:
2 A new unresolved issue
Nichloas de Anglin. This person is obviously Norman English.
'De Faknham Nicholas' (rf. 1287), bishop of Durham; professor of medicine in the universities of Parta and Bologna; began his studies at Oxford and proceeded to Paris, where, in addition to medical studies, be directed courses of dialectics, physics, and theology: went for a short time to Bologna as professor of medicine; returned to England, 1229; taught logic and natural philosophy at Oxford and became physician to Henry III: received much ecclesiastical preferment: elected bishop of Durham, 1241; had cathedral rebuilt; resigned, 1248.
Two treatises, Practica Mediciiurand De Viribus Herbarum mentioned as his by Pits, have not been traced. There are three medical treatises extant in manuscript in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris written by Nicholas de Anglin, who is probably identical with Nicholas de Faruham. I think it would be very unwise to build the Anglin story on this isolated piece of information.