The Aims of this Chapter are:
- To appreciate the historical background to the O’hAngluinn story during this period
- To note the various spellings in the Anglicization of the Gaelic name
- To seek to know the O’hAngluinns as persons in this period
Brief historical background 1600-1900
To appreciate the O’hAngluinn story, particularly during this period, some background knowledge of historical events is necessary.
Real efforts at the Anglicization of Ireland began during the reign of the English Tudor monarchs in the 1500’s and grew in strength with Elizabeth who completed her reign in 1603. This Anglicisation of Ireland was on a grand scale. It included a desire for total control and so efforts to anglicise the Gaelic culture, system of clan organisation, Catholic faith, Form of Government, Gaelic language etc were paramount.
These efforts, begun by the Tudors continued unabated throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, they were reinforced by displacement of local people by further plantations, a system already implemented in Munster by Elizabeth. Other major events were:
- The establishment of the Church of Ireland (a sister church of the Church of England) as the state Church
- The establishment of planter towns e.g. Bandon (1604) and Clonakilty (1613) is of that category too
- The defeat and flight of the Earls to the European mainland in 1607
- The rebellions of 1641-1652 by the Irish against repression
- The devastating ‘visit’ of Cromwell and his severe response in Cork in 1649
- The battles between William and James towards the end of the 1680’s and into the 1690’s
- The great movement of Irish soldiers and families, students both religious and secular to Europe
- Some forced movement of ordinary people to the new colonies of the Americas
- Then the Penal Laws begun 1695 and continued thereafter, weakening in severity in the late 1700’s, until Catholic Emancipation in 1829
- The late 16th and early 17th centuries corresponds with English colonisation of the Americas, which also impinged on the Irish story
- These events made the 17th century and early 18th quite unique in Irish history. This is the context of the Anglicisation of the name O'hAngluinn
Some books examined in researching the historical background:
- Narrative History of Ireland by Micheal O Siochfhradha ISBN 1-903497-21-3 published by Aubane historical Society Millstreet Co. Cork I recommend this for someone seeking our genuine history but in narrative form
- A Concise course of Irish History by Moody and Martin
- The Illustrated History of Ireland by C. F. Cusack (Nun of Kenmare) written in 1860’s
Anglicisation of the surname O'hAngluinn
The 17th century is decisive in the Anglicisation of Irish surnames. It took place gradually and in rural areas in a disordered manner as the people continued to speak Irish. Government edict wanted the change, but the new English spelling depended on the whim of the local scribe who entered the Gaelic names into English documents, whether business, legal or official church documents. The local intonation, pronunciation and accent influenced spelling. For these reasons Anglicisation resulted in a fragmentation of the original Gaelic Surname.
Early English spelling of O'hAngluinn in the late 1500’s
Looking at the 1500’s, the only evidence unearthed was the pardons granted in the Elizabethan (reign 1558-1603) Fiants of the late 1500’s, I just use the surnames here:
Column 1 and part of 2 might even be a different name.
Early English spelling of O'hAngluinn in the 1600’s
There is little documentary record in the 1600’s naming ordinary Irish people, much less those with a rare surname. The early volumes of the ‘Presentments of Kinsale’, highlight the problem. They record many English names but rarely Irish names. The earliest reference to an Anglin in the 17th century is in Petty’s Census of 1659 for the Parish of Desert Surges an Irish titulandoe James Hauglin. The second, an entry in the Grand Jury Presentments of Kinsale of 1676 a David Hanglane, who according to the records seems to have escaped punishment!!
The next in Burke's Pedigrees referring to a marriage of v. Honora O'Donovan Daughter of Teige O'Donovan of Rahine and Drishane, and Grand daughter of Donell, chieftain of the O’Donovan sept. to a Dermot Anglin. This Honora died in the 1670's. The fourth and latest in date, the marriage licence bond for 1681 of a Francis Anglin to Elizabeth Mills in the county of Cork.
Interestingly these last two carry the English spelling now normally expected for the O’hAngluinn surname. It is also noteworthy these four examples are all in County Cork and all seem to have linkage with the ‘colonisers’.
Some of the Documents examined for the presence of surname O'hAngluinn in the 17th century:
- Elizabethan Fiants
- Petty’s Census of 1659
- The Presentments of the Corporation of Kinsale
- Marriage Licence Bonds of the Church of Ireland
- Burkes 'Genealogical History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, enjoying territorial possessions of High Official Rank, but uninvested with heritable Honours' in Volume 3 pages 397-399
English spelling of O'hAngluinn in 1700’s
In the 18th century there is greater evidence of the surname in the records. Wills from 1723, Marriage licence records from 1729; and thereafter numbers grow. A major increase occurs as some Catholic Church records begin c.1762. The usual spelling in all these records is ‘Anglin’, though Hanglin occurs quite regularly and sometimes Anglim, Anglinn, Anglen, Anglan and Hanglan.
Some documents examined for the surname O'hAngluinn/Anglin in 18th Century:
- Marriage Licence Bonds
- Roman Catholic Records earliest entry is 1742 and this is exceptional
- Church of Ireland Records earliest entry varies with individual Parish; earliest in 1643 are unique
- Irish Flax Growers list of 1796 for County Clare
- Irish Wills 1700+ Diocese Cork and Ross also Diocese of Cloyne
- A Calendar of wills of the diocese of Waterford and Lismore 1645 to 1800
- The Convert Rolls by Eileen O’Byrne
- The Protestant Census 1766
- The complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage 1614-1775 by Peter Wilson Cobham:
- Irish American Associations early years by David Beers Quinn:
- The History of Bandon by George Bennet
What of the 1800’s?
The quantity of records increased markedly in the second half of this century. The evidence shows the common spelling to be Anglin, particularly in County Cork; but the presence of Anglim in the neighbouring counties to Cork is quite noticeable. In regard to County Tipperary and the Griffith’s valuation lists, which I have placed in Appendix 8 E, the situation there merits independent study.
Some of the documents examined for the surname O'hAngluinn/Anglin in 19th Century:
- Griffith’s Valuations
- Civil Birth Marriage and Death Registers
- Church of Ireland Church Records
- Roman Catholic Church Records
Concluding comments on the English form of O'hAngluinn
In the 17th century the English form takes root in the country. From the mid 1700’s more records are available for scrutiny and the evidence shows the usual English form had become ‘Anglin’ but other forms do occur, sometimes due to voice intonation or accent. But still local spellings occur, with County Tipperary being unique. Care was necessary in going beyond usual spellings as it could lead to accepting a different name; e.g. ‘O’Hanlon’ is a different name with a different history. (The guideline I used was the need for the presence of the consonants ‘g’ along side the ‘l’ and ‘n’). Cf. footnote on the surname Angland.
It is clear the prefix ‘O’ and the ‘h’ were discarded during these centuries but sometimes the ‘h’ still remains as part of the name as in hanglin.
Summary of stages in the evolution of the Anglin surname:
The story of the O’hAngluinns as persons in this period
Having examined the books and documents on this surname, the focus now moves to the persons ‘behind’ the name. While records are few, it seems legitimate to make the following deductions.
The Anglins were ‘ordinary people’
‘Official’ documents only treat of those Irish who had standing in the mindset of the governing elites, even if their standing was as opponents. Therefore the absence of the surname suggests the Anglins were very much ‘ordinary people’, but we remember they were descendants of individuals whom their peers considered to be ‘Anglonns’. But they were mentioned when they broke the law or became in some way attached to the ruling English elite, be it by marriage or even by religious allegiance. Also where business directories named Anglins their occupation indicates ‘ordinary’ people.
The Anglins and education
A love of knowledge is part of Irish culture and tradition. This fact is evidenced in difficult times with the ‘hedge schools’ and in the migration to Europe for education when it was denied at home. Though the name is rare the fulfilment of this desire is seen in a young man at College in Louvain and in the presence of the Augustinian Prior in Dungarvan Co. Waterford. (It is a joy to see that continuing love of knowledge and learning in the migrants to Canada)
Anglins were mostly Catholic
The Gaelic Anglin name pre dates the Reformation so it is reasonable to assume they were Catholic by religious persuasion. The growth in visibility of Catholic Anglins in the late 1700’s is evidenced in Church Records, now kept as the priest’s fear of keeping information on their people waned. These records show the presence of many Anglins in the births, marriages and death records of Catholic Churches.
Some Anglins accepted the Reformed Church
While there is not a lot of evidence for the presence of any Anglins in the 17th century, those who are named suggest allegiance to the reformed Church. Thereafter the Protestant Anglins are clearly present in the records of the early 18th century.
The Anglins were ‘rural people’
Reviewing the records of Cork and its county towns during 1600-1900, there is a growing presence of Anglins in the towns as years progress, even growing to a relatively substantial number. This fact suggests a rural people moving into towns for employment or to improve their lot. Even their occupations, where known, have a relationship with rural life.
The location of the Anglins
We have already established this in the geographic mapping in Chapter One. The vast majority of Anglins were in the County of Cork with an overspill in small groups in counties adjacent to Cork, but some individuals seemed to have ‘wandered’ even up to Donegal and Belfast.
The emigration of the Anglins
Initially the movement of O’hAngluinn / Anglins was within Ireland. An example is the story of the Glanmire Anglins, who beginning in Glanmire, Cork moved along the west coast line around the north till they settled in the Belfast area. But there is another movement that takes O’hAngluinns beyond Ireland’s shores… the Anglins of the Diaspora. This Irish migration is examined in an historical supplement at the end of Section 1.
A few comments are needed at this stage. Within Ireland there are no records of ordinary emigrants in the 16th-18th centuries. Fortunately outside Ireland there are some in the later centuries, even if little is recorded as to why they left Ireland. Examples of such records are in the British National Government Archives in Kew London, Ellis Island records, naturalisation papers, censi, social documents and death registers. These speak of many Anglins whose birthplace was Ireland. Further there are European records e.g. Records of Irish Colleges and of Irish military Regiments and even here Anglins are mentioned. This knowledge forces me to comment, how is it in those bygone days the name Anglin is barely mentioned yet when emigration is examined the presence of the Anglin name is multiplied a hundred fold! Today but few Anglins remain in Ireland.
Conclusion to the Chapter
While the anglicised form of the name varies the normal is ‘Anglin/m’. They are a numerically small group of Gaelic origin, mostly Catholic, rural, and seemingly natives of Cork. While stating they are a numerically small group, since the surname re-appears in numbers in records post 1740, it is clear they must have been more numerous than earlier documents suggest. They are not associated with the ownership of large tracts of land in Ireland’s past, nor are they one of the large Gaelic clan/sept names.
The silent and hidden years of the 17th century
Reflecting on the absence of records of the Anglin name in 17th century Ireland, I can only call it ‘The tragic Silence of the 17th Century’, where even the very names of ordinary people were devalued.
Having searched the story of this name through the generations it is clear the period from Queen Elizabeth, circa 1560, till about 1720 was an important stage in the story of the O'hAngluinn family name, yet few official records speak of them. The Bishop of Elphin made an instructive comment to the Pope in 1770. He reported, ‘though the persecutions had ceased, the priests were as yet unwilling to keep records’! Hopefully the reawakened interest of Irish Scholars in Irish migrations to Europe in 1500’s to 1800 may uncover more information about our predecessors.
This ‘silent period’ continues to be of concern for research, and substitute sources of information need to be uncovered. Major events occurred in this period, the Anglicisation of their name occurred, the beginning of the Protestant lines, the emigration, forced or voluntary, occurred. It is important to keep in mind till the late 1700’s, Irelands migration and cultural leanings were to Europe and it is only from then the migration destinations changes direction to the English speaking new world
Moving the search forward
It will be a slow process to move this search forward, requiring knowledge of the place of residency of people. This will require searches of estate records, state records, court records, the place of female marriages etc. This cannot occur without more precision as to the actual place of residency. In English Record offices and in the Old Irish Colleges on the continent there is material. I am sure with more interest in these issues, as time goes on, such material will become available through national libraries.
Other material worthy of research:
- The Munster Plantation: English migration to South Ireland (1583-1641) by McCarthy Morragh (Oxford 1986)
- Ireland under the Commonwealth and Protectorate (164-1656) 2 Vols by Dunlop (Manchester 1913)
- The Litany of Saints by Aengus written in the eighth century
- The History of Cork by Dr. Smith written in the early 1800’s
An important additional note
There was movement of Irish people to the European mainland before the Anglicisation of Gaeilge Surnames, which had become official English Government policy in the reign of Queen Elizabeth the first (1558-1603). If O’hangluinns / Anglins were among those who migrated at the pre Anglicisation period to mainland Europe and particularly Spain; then their surname would have been in the Gaeilge form. In those circumstances it is more than possible that a form of the Gaeilge surname could occur today in Spain or Spanish colonies alongside the surname in its anglicised form.
Further developments on Chapter 3
Chapter 3 of the report sought to record insights into the Anglins as persons in the post 1600 period using documentary evidence. While it was understood Civil registers existed really only from 1864 no serious focus was made on the necessary relationship of documents and the existence of stone buildings.
Documents would only survive the generations in ‘stone’ buildings. So besides paying attention to the historical vicissitudes of the Irish people attention has to be paid not just to when parishes were established, but also the year the stone-like buildings were erected. That study while being part of the bedrock of this type of research is outside the narrow focus of this study.
The original report concluded little would be recorded about ordinary people (this would include the Anglins) and church records of people were not kept really before 1750. Consequently if progress is to be made, areas outside those normally used in genealogical research need to be searched. So Literary records, Estate Papers, Town Corporatio/Government records, Wills and similar type papers are examined. As the surname belongs to County Cork and its environs, the search is made of pre 1800 Papers in that geographic area.
1. Identifying Anglins in Literary material within Ireland pre 1800
The Poet Diarmaid Ban O’hAnglainn lived early 1600’s:
Bards were in Ireland in the Gaelic Period attached to major Gaelic patrons, clan leaders etc. They held an important position in society. They were educated and had knowledge of law, history, battles particularly those enhancing the good name of their patron. Their message was disseminated in the form of Gaeilge Poetry. With the effort to destroy the Gaelic Culture, beginning in the late 1500’s, the Bards gradually lost position. A lot of their writings still exist as collectors in the 1600’s gathered their Poetry. This material is in the Royal Irish Academy and Universities at home and in Europe. Since the mid 1800’s efforts have been made to regain some of their ‘Story’ from these ancient documents. Among the Bardic poems there is at least one poem written by an Anglin, the Bardic Poet Diarmaid Ban O’hAnglainn. His poem was written in the early 1600’s and commences ‘Saoghal so nach saoghal damh’ , it is a didactic poem of the ‘Aithrighe’ (repentance) type. The manuscript is in the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, the reference is: 9146 RIA5 (23/D/4) Munster 17th cent. (It is possible the next poem in that collection was also written by Diarmaid). The poem originated in Munster. The poem is also present in a collection in National University at Maynooth (Ms 87,pp550-1).
Diarmuid O’Murhuadha, author of ‘Family names of county Cork’, has kindly made a translation into English, for which I express my sincere gratitude.
Besides its inherent value, the poem again emphasises:
- the Gaelic origin of our surname in the Munster area
- the Gaelic spelling of the surname
- the use of the surname in the Gaeilge language in the early 1600’s even post the early stages of anglicisation of surnames in official documents of the Elizabethan Fiants had begun
- the Christian inheritance and traditions
Reading it draws one to recall a cultural element in an earlier O’hAnglainn who was a tympanist.
An internet site reference is: http://bardic.celt.dias.ie/displayPoem.php?firstLineID=1668
The Poem (Diarmoid Bán Ó h’anglainn cecinit)
2. Identifying Anglins in Irish Wills pre 1800
In seeking to learn more through Wills, other information came to light. The geographic areas of these ‘wealthy!’ Anglins were identified. Also a new insight into the Anglin surname’s arrival into Canada was found (cf.‘Further developments’ added to Chapter 14).
The focus here is on ‘Wills held in Ireland’. A collection outside Ireland was uncovered and a reference to that is footnoted. It is anticipated few Anglins will be unearthed and those found will be in County Cork or its environs.
A brief historical Introduction to Wills in Ireland
Will documentation was rare in the Gaelic period. The New English set up a system, in which up to 1857. Irish Wills were probated in courts of the established Church, the Church of Ireland. Two methods were used:
- Where an estate was completely within one diocese then the Diocesan Consistorial courts were responsible for granting probate and administration.
- If an estate extended beyond one diocese then probate matters were passed to the Prerogative Court. These wills are really of the wealthy, or merchants. This Court gained a fixed base in 1816 at the Kings Inns Henrietta Street Dublin.
The original documents of both Courts were centralised in the Public Records Office in the Four Courts, Dublin after 1857 and Indexes to them were prepared. William Betham and other private individuals, made abstracts of some wills and retained them outside the P.R.O. Some ‘wealthy’ families had their own private collections.
A further development occurred in 1708 with the introduction of the Registry of Deeds. (This Registry was originally established to copper fasten the new ownership of land following the Cromwellian and Williamite conquests of Ireland).
Fire in the P.R.O. in 1922 destroyed the original documents, but most Indexes survived.
Some researchers since 1922 have gathered will information from various sources in Ireland and England, one such collection being W.H. Welply’s ‘Pedigree Notebooks’. As family collections of early wills come into the public domain other Anglins may surface.
An Examination of the Consistorial court Wills for Anglins
Indexes are in the NAI Dublin. Published Copies are: ‘Testamentary Records of Ireland’ ed. Phillimore and Thrift, covering all Munster dioceses.
Other sources are: O’Kief ‘Coshe Mang Slive Lougher vols 5,6,8.
The following Anglins are named in these Consistorial Indexes:
- James Anglin Cork, probated 1783 (I assume Cork here means Cork City)
- Mark Anglin Cork probated 1723 (Presumably Cork City)
- Mary Anglin Cork probated 1786 (Presumably Cork City)
- Cicely Anglin (formerly Heagerty) widow, probated Cork (Presumably Cork City)
- Francis Hanglin Clonakilty, probated 1742
- John Hanglin Clonakilty, probated 1754
- William Hanglin Clonakilty, probated 1771
- Waterford and Lismore covering 1645-1800
- John Anglin Knockatimore, County Waterford probated 1730
- John Anglin Ballylaffin, County Waterford probated 1779
- John Handlin, H.M.S. The Cornwall probated 1749 (English Ship): note spelling!!
- John Hanglin, Ballynhally County Waterford probated 1750
O’Kief offered this extra information:
- Jeremiah Hanglin from Clonakilty, probated 1742
There was an Anglin will of Ferns diocese (Wexford) but I know nothing of it.
An Examination of Consistorial Anglin Will Abstracts
Only two will Abstracts were unearthed, both in the Welply Collection.
In a section headed “Deeds copied Dublin 31/5/51 to 18/6/51 Registry of Deeds” in notebook 22a page 186, this handwritten statement occurs:
41. 173,465,128483. Agreement 10 Novr. 1755. Elizh. Payne. Wid. And Exectr. of Silvanus Payne late of Ardclugg near Inishonam, Co. Cork (i) Wm. Hanglen of Ardclugg, wool comber (ii). Elizh. Had an interest in the lands of Ardclugg by virtue of a lease 2 made to Silvanus by Rev. John Moore decd.
Wm. Hanglen had married Mary Ann Payne, docee. of Elizh. above
Wits. :- Robert Payne of Inishowan Co. Cork and John Cusick of the same, linen weaver.
(i) nee Burgess (m.l.d.)
(ii) Lease not registered
The second relevant entry is in Notebook 22a page 188, again handwritten, and reads:
47. 221,500,148822. Lease 1763 Cath.Allen wid. & admx. of John A. of Cork, clothier (i) Wm Hanglin of same, clothier. Demise of Dwelling house
An examination of Prerogative Court wills for Anglins
Indexes to these are in the N.A.I. Dublin. Published Indexes are:
- Betham’s, ‘Index of testators up to 1810’
- Vicars ‘Prerogative Index to Wills 1536-1810’
- CD Rom: ‘Index of Irish Wills 1484-1858’
- Records at NAI Dublin (Eneclann 1999)
There are no Anglin/Hanglins in any of these Indexes.
An Examination of Registered Wills in the Registry of Deeds for Anglins
The index is in Registry of Deeds, Dublin. Published Indexes are:
- ‘Registry of Deeds Index & Abstracts’ Vols 1 and 2: 1708-1785 ed. Beryl Eustace; Vol 3: 1785-1852 ed. Ellis & Beryl Eustace
- ‘Abstracts of the Registered wills’, by the Irish Manuscript commission, which are in the National Library and in the Registry of Deeds.
There are no Anglins/Hanglins in any of these Indexes.
A Comment on Irish Wills held abroad listing Anglins
Indexes/abstracts of Wills held abroad are given in this footnote. The Canterbury Court for Prerogative Wills in England is available online.
There are four Anglin wills from Jamaica in the Canterbury Court Wills.
3. Identifying Anglins in Collections of Estate & Private Papers pre-1800
During the reign of Elizabeth 1 who died c.1600 and in the reigns of subsequent English monarchs the land in Ireland was taken over (confiscated) and given to English Lords, their followers or ‘friendly Irish’. Their estate papers often record the names of Irish people who lived or paid rent to these Lords. The major Estates in County Cork would include the Lismore Estate and the Doneraile estates. In the national Library Dublin (www.nli.ie) there are collections of manuscripts. The following Papers cover estates in County Cork and environs. They have or are being examined.
- Lismore Castle papers are relevant to the Anglin story
- Doneraile Papers are geographically relevant to the Anglin story
- Welply Papers are relevant to the Anglin story
- Kinsale Corporation Presentments are relevant to the Anglin story
- Doherty Papers (Bandon)not examined
- McCarthy Papers contain nothing relevant to the Anglin story
- Inchiquin Papers contain nothing relevant to the Anglin story
- Lord Castletown Papers contain nothing relevant to the Anglin story
- The Civil survey for Cork: The Inquisitions
- Kinsale Grand Jury Presentments:
These were examined for the original report up till 1720 and a David Hanglane was recorded in 1676
- The Welply Collection of Papers:
This collection, which is in the C.of I. Library, Dublin, in Notebook 26 page 316 has a pedigree referring to Anglins. I quote:
These two entries are stated to appear in the (printed) Index to Cork and Ross Marriage Licence Bonds 1751-1845 Official Letter 14.1.56 from P.R.O. Dublin.
The above portion of a pedigeee came to me via Mrs. Hesketh-Williams of 32a Clanrickard Gardens W2 from Mr.Ronald Siliott of Newcomber, 126 Boulevard Stratfield Sydney, NS.W. who is professor of Greek in some school or college in Sydney who states that the pedigree was given to him by Mr. James Penrose Anglin.
- The Lismore Castle Papers:
This estate extended from West Waterford to West Cork. At various stages belonging to Sir Walter Rayleigh, the Boyles, Cavendishes and Duke of Devonshire. It can include Tallow, Youghel, Bandon, Kilgariffe, Cork City and Clogheen in Tipperary, areas in which Anglins lived. A summary of these papers is on the Internet at: www.nli.ie/pdfs/mss%20lists/129_Lismore.pdf
There are no Anglins in these summaries but there are Anglins in section 6 of the manuscripts which includes the Rental lists, sub lease and tenant lists etc. of various sections of the estate. Attention was paid to those relating to areas where Anglins were assumed to have lived e.g. Bandon, Clonakilty Clogheen, Tallow etc. A list of manuscripts examined is in a footnote.
Information uncovered on Anglins
- John Hanglin is listed three times in MS 43,737/3 as paying rent in Clognakilty in 1695/6. In MS 6152 in 1735 a John Hanglin is paying rent for property in Cloghnakilty.
- Francis Hanglin is listed in MSS 43,737/3 to12 on a number of occasions as paying rent for the Millington Plot in Clognakilty.
- In /4 it is stated he had a 21 year lease beginning Lady Day 1704. It also confirms the payment of the rent for 1706-1707.
- In MS 43,737/10 there is further detail, I quote: “Francis Hanglin for Millington Plot in which he built a handsome house and a good malt house which cost him as he alleges 150. He has a lease of 21 years granted him by Lord Castleton from Lady Day 1719 and afterwards proposed for a lease of 3 lives which was amazingly demised and sent over for Lord Castleton but never sent back …12. 60 half rents 1730.” This rent is again paid in 1731 by Francis Hanglin.
- In MS 43,737/11 the entry is repeated.
- In MS 43,737/12 Francis Hanglin he is still there and also in 1731 and 1735 and paying rent and adds a statement that “the lease was granted in 1701 for 31 years”.
- In MS 6152 for 1733-1735 he is shown in November 1733 paying rent.
- In MS 43,741/4 shows Francis Hanglin in 1737 and 1738 and paying rent for Millington Plot.
- Wil Hanglin is listed in MS 741/4 in a difficult entry to read paying rent through a Edward Hayes”. The title for this dwelling area is ‘Cloghnikilty Manors’.
- In MS 43,741/5: covering Rent collectors account books for 1743 – 1751 shows Wil. in 1747 paying rent on Lady Day’.
- Rob Hanglin is listed in MS 43,741/5 as paying rent in 1743, 4 and 5.
- Doneraile Papers:
A list of their contents is on the Internet. I examined manuscripts pre-1800 for Anglins and found none.
- The Ordinance Survey of Ireland. The Inquisitions…Cork:
These cover the period late 1500’s and the 1600’s. They cover the land confiscations from the Irish incumbents, Clan leaders, and their transfer to others ‘friendly’ to the ruling government. It would include the reigns of James, Cromwell and Charles. I examined areas linked to Anglins and specifically north County Cork. Not unsurprisingly I found no Anglins. I was not surprised as Anglins were ordinary members of the clans even if ‘heroic’and would have been tenants rather than owners. In this sense the negative findings help to substanciate the view that the Anglins were ‘ordinary’ people.
- The Doherty Papers of the Earl of Bandon Estate:
A minor group just now available: they were not examined.
This examination of old records clearly establishes Anglins in West Waterford, Cork City and a line into West Cork as far as the Clonakilty area, and from as early as 1676. It also shows a gradual Anglicisation of the Gaeilge surname to Hanglin and then Anglin, but with some retention of the Hanglin form; indeed the Hanglin form was more common in the 1700’s than anticipated. While Anglins are still rare, the surname shows a certain permanence particularly in the Clonakillty area.
4. Aim: To update the evolution of the English spelling of O’hAnglainn
The section entitled ‘Summary of stages in the evolution of the Anglin surname’ is now updated to include understandings flowing from the new material unearthed, particularly the common use of Hanglin in the 1700’s.
- It is noteworthy the consonants A, N, G, L and N/M are present in the original epithet ‘Anglonn’ and are retained throughout the generations and the vicissitudes of misspelling. It is the vowels that seem to change.
- The stages of anglicisation seem to be firstly the dropping of the ‘O’ and then the dropping of the ‘h’.
- In the pre-1800 period the common anglicised forms are Anglin(m) and Hanglin and simple spelling vowel variations of these. I see the use of M or N as merely due to local intonation.
- The earliest proven presence of the surname outside Ireland is in the anglicised form and is ‘William Angli’ in Spain. The dropping of the ‘n’, I believe, is due to linguistic structures of the Spanish language.
- The form ‘Hanglin’ present in Clonakilty, and in Cork and Ross and Waterford and Lismore Wills seems to have followed the mercantile and through Spain to the old Spanish colonies. (Dare I suggest wealth/importance was a factor?)
- The form ‘Anglin’ in its various spellings seems to have followed the lines of England and the English colonisation.
Having extensively studied the evolution in the spelling of this surname in Ireland from the original Gaeilge form of O’hAnglainn / O’hAngluinn through the early efforts at anglicisation evidenced in the Fiants and then in the literary, historical, civil, religious, state and corporation records of the 16th to 19th centuries it is clear Anglim, Anglin and Hanglin have a common origin and are clearly different spellings of the same surname. These three specific spellings stabilised during the 1700’s in Ireland and abroad.
Some of the documents examined in the preparation of this Chapter’s ‘Further Developments’:
- Families of County Cork by Diarmuid O’Murchadha
- Annals of Connaught: No Anglins
- Pecata Hibernia: No Anglins
- Lismore Castle Papers
- Doherty Papers on Bandon Estate
- Doneraile Papers
- Welply Notebooks
- Cork Inquisitions