Mapping the presence in Ireland of the surname Anglin
The Aims of this Chapter are:
The approach taken in this chapter is strongly influenced by the work of Professor W. Smith of UCC published in Atlas of family names in Ireland.
I began the research aware of the rarity of the O’hAngluinn / Anglin (m) surname. In this year 2008 the only Anglins I could locate in Ireland were in:
17th century documents likewise showed but few examples of the surname. So sensible mapping was to be a problem, However by adjusting the research period, I felt a set of results could be obtained which could at least be indicative of the possible geographic origin and spread of the Anglin Surname.
The approach used
I sought out all examples of the O’hAngluinn / Anglin surname from the various Irish records without attempting to be exhaustive; paying attention to name, date, place and information source. Data was arranged according to county. When numbers were large within a county I sub-divided them, allocating entries to the nearest town within the county. I did not retain material after c.1890. The quantity of data is large and is placed in appendix 1. The ‘organised’ data suggested the inferences I make below.
In the gathering stage the spelling ‘Anglin’ was used but I soon realised such an approach was as scribes were not concerned with precise spelling. So there is a particular weakness in this work due to inconsistency in the gathered statistics. However I do not think the discrepancy is large enough to invalidate the general conclusions.
Where did Anglins live in Ireland’s past?
Data supporting the tables below is given in Appendix 1.
Having drawn the items together, besides proving ‘Anglin’, was the more common form of the O’hAngluinn surname; the data suggested the following inferences.
The Geographic areas of scatter of the Anglin surname in Ireland
While mapping has pointed to County Cork as the source for the Anglin name, it would be unwise to discount the importance of ‘other county’ Anglins in the Anglin Story. I have divided County Cork into three West Cork, North Cork and East Cork ignoring Cork City and the Glanmire area. By taking this approach it does help to concentrate the mind, as the Anglin story in each geographic area seems to offer a different insight. Without going into the detail of their story at this time, some comments on each county are given to indicate particular geographic issues.
Most Anglin/ms living in Ireland today have given little thought to their family trees, but are aware of their ‘geographic root’ or source area. The Anglin/ms living in Ireland in 2008 and who live in Belfast, Roscommon and Kilkenny all trace their origin to County Cork, while Kildare Anglins trace theirs to County Tipperary I will omit these, as they are part of the story of another county. I now take a very brief look at these Geographic areas, and hope others will delve more deeply into their particular stories
A lot of research has been done on this area and it is very clear the Anglin presence has been there for hundreds of years. Merely to examine the family trees of the DNA group two indicates the importance of this area. I make many references to West Cork in the course of this report as for some time scholars saw it as the source of the Anglin surname. Geographically I see it as extending from Bandon westward to Dunmanway and Bantry and everything south of it, showing up on the coastline from Kinsale to the Kerry border
This includes the Slieve Luchra and goes right over to the Kerry Border. O’Kief in his many volumes gives a lot of information on the area. Here even the very music seems to be a little unique. There are Anglins (including surname variants) here for two or three centuries. There is also another unusual surname in that area ‘Angland’. There are Anglins in the area Millstreet to the Kerry Border. Geographically it covers all the area of County Cork north of the West Cork area, so includes towns like Boherbue, Millstreet Charleville Buttervant Mallow etc.
This area is quite different from the other two County Cork areas as the presence of the name here, if Glanmire is excluded, is very sparse indeed. But the possible presence of the surname in the Pipe Rolls of Cloyne means the area cannot be discounted without more extensive research.
I commence the areas outside of County Cork with the Belfast/County Down group as though the surname’s presence is numerically small it highlights the importance of paying attention to these ‘Outside Cork’ Anglins. Through a recent investigation of County Down Anglins a group of US Anglins were shown to have an Irish origin. Further study of these County Down/Belfast Anglins may indicate they had come there from another county and so have an earlier root source in Munster, maybe even in County Cork as is the case of one Belfast Anglin group. This particular piece of investigation indicates the need to explore all these ‘overspill counties’
Research indicated an absence of Anglins in the north riding of County Tipperary. Today the Anglins living in County Kildare have their roots in South Tipperary. A current Anglin living in Cork City also has South Tipperary roots. There are other Anglin/ms, in Clonmel, in the Fethard area, Danagan area, Rosegreen area and Mullinahone area of South Tipperary.
I am unaware of any written material by these South County Tipperary Anglin/ms regarding their geographic origin, or indeed their relationships with one another.
The data in Appendix one and Appendix 8 E shows the spelling of the surname varies.
A further indication of an unexplored story in South Tipperary is the presence of Anglin/ms in England, in Cork City; in California all tracing their origin to South Tipperary, indeed records in Kew England show a first war soldier from Cahir.
The surname is present in old wills, in an Augustinian priest of the European migration, in Griffith's valuations, in a Father Anglin of Burnfoot and Clogheen in Tipperary, a Tipperary parish which is in the diocese of Waterford and Lismore. These Anglins are mostly in an area close to County Cork. Waterford was a major port and so the story of Anglins in this county may deepen our insight into the Anglin story generally.
There are few Anglins in Limerick today and the spelling seems to be Anglim. I am aware of research been done by a Chris Anglim in the USA, but his work may suggest an earlier origin in County Cork.
There are Anglims in Wexford today. Anglims of the past were associated with a Wexford Newspaper; a young man killed in a shipping accident almost a hundred years ago was also from Wexford. Like Waterford, Wexford is a port town. Incidentally hearsay links the Wexford Anglins to county Clare.
There should be Anglin/ms in County Clare today as they were there fifty years ago but I cannot presently trace any. Looking at the Flax Growers lists in the 1796 and the Griffith’s valuations of the 1850’s indicates there is a story there. I have a memory of two brothers Anglin who were Capuchin Franciscan priests in the 1950’s. In view of the scatter of the name in county Clare there is a need for further study into their story.
Kerry is a bit different as the name is very scarce and seems to be just in Tarbert at the Shannon river mouth. Tarbert was a home to Coastguards in the past. A member of the Glanmire Anglins was born there and her father was a coastguard. They originally were Cork people.
Concluding comments to this Chapter
This research has emphasised the importance of Cork as an original source of the name, but the surrounding counties have a story to tell and their own story of the migration of the people may add further refinements to our understanding of the precise beginnings of this surname.
Independent study into each of these separate Geographic areas is necessary, particularly in view of an issue that will be raised later; namely there is more than one line of the Anglin surname.
Some of the documents examined in the preparation of this Chapter:
Further developments on Chapter 1
The Aims of this ‘Further developments’ section are:
To deepen understanding of the ‘geographically separate, Irish Anglins’
The ‘Mapping of the Anglins in Ireland’ opened the possibility of:
These possibilities are now explored. As before in this research, unearthing relevant documentation has been difficult and some knowledge of the details of relevant family trees is necessary for success. Only the Belfast / Down geographic area has been fully examined.
Anglin, Anglim and Hanglin are just different spellings of the same Gaeilge surname O’hAngluinn.
Belfast / Down Anglins
I have completed the investigation of the Anglins of this geographic area. Belfast City lies on both sides of the River Lagan, half in County Antrim and half in county Down. But all the Anglins are really in the City of Belfast and its environs. These Anglins have been exhaustively examined using censuses; directories; birth, marriage and death registry material etc.
There are two distinct and separate groups: one line are descendants of the ‘Glanmire Anglins’ with a Group 2 DNA profile; the other referred to as ‘Bangor Anglins’ are of Group 3 DNA. (See Chapter 4 for a discussion on DNA profiles.) The names ‘Bangor’ and ‘Glanmire’ are merely identifiers.
The family first names are quite different in the two groups. The family tree of the Glanmire Anglins shows their movement within Ireland was due to their seafaring links. A partial tree of the Bangor Anglins also exists. The Glanmire Anglins are Catholic, traceable to a John Anglin of County Cork with many of the line in Britain. The Bangor Anglins are Protestant and traceable to a Francis Anglin and Isabella Carbery who had a marriage licence bond for Dromore, Down, Connor in 1833 and who lived in Drumbeg outside Belfast in Co Down.
The issue in respect of this group is to trace the birth place of Francis Anglin who took out the M.L.Bond. I suspect the family will be traced back to County Cork. Family descendants are now in the USA.
A separate individual ‘Pat Anglin’ cannot presently be placed in either group.
The Glandore area Anglins of County Cork
A few individual Anglins remain in that area today but Ellis Island and the familysearch.org records show the migration of Anglins from: Leap, Baltimore and Skibereen to the New World particularly America. Hearsay indicates the ‘Glanmire Anglins’ may have a common source in this sea coast area of West Cork. Further DNA studies of some of the descendants of these Leap, Baltimore and Skibereen migrants may assist the study. I am unaware of any serious research done on this group. The supposition would be that they are related to other Group 2 lines of Anglins.
The Clonakilty / Bandon area Anglins of County Cork
This group, containing separate Anglin groups has unintentionally been the most researched. Historically they are present in the Lismore Papers; Welply Papers; Griffiths Valuations; Directories; Census; Graves; Church and state registers, and passenger records.
The earliest date uncovered in the Lismore Papers is 1695. The various documents show the presence of the Hanglin form of the surname becoming the Anglin Form in succeeding years. Anglins still remain in the Clonakilty area today and these in the past were linked to the Leap/Glandore area. The two lines of Canadian Anglins trace their origins to this area. As is seen from their incomplete family trees, the Protestant line to the Bandon Innishannon area and the Catholic group to Clonakilty. All these groups share the same Group 2 DNA profile, with the exception of the Canadian Catholic line which has not been tested.
Efforts have been made, without success, to link all these groups together by documents – later efforts may be more successful. My feeling is that the separation of the lines occurred pre-1700.
The Anglins of West Waterford
Recent studies have increased awareness of the past presence of this group both in west County Waterford and East County Cork, even though today they are absent. Their presence is confirmed by Griffiths Valuations; by migration studies to the European mainland in the 16-18th centuries and by 18th century Irish Wills.
This new awareness opens up the need for an examination of the County Waterford Story. Recent Studies by Dr. John Mannion on migration to Newfoundland shows a few Anglins from this area. This particular research may help deepen knowledge of the Canadian lines as hearsay might link East Cork Anglins to Clonakilty. True descendants of Waterford Anglins need to be identified to advance the story. I am unaware of any family tree or DNA research been done on these Anglins.
South Tipperary Anglin/m
This group (or is it groups?) are spread from east to west across the south riding of Tipperary from Clogheen, Ballylooby, Cahir, Clonmel and Mullaghone. History refers to an Anglin as a parish priest in Clogheen; natives of there are seen on passenger lists to the USA, and there is a large number listed in Griffiths.
Tipperary Anglins are present in Essex in England and one in Ireland in Cork City. They have also spread to Kildare, Dublin and in California in the US. There is a record of a Cahir Anglin killed in World War I.
I am unaware of any family trees: both forms of spelling – Anglin and Anglim – are used in the county, and seemingly interchangeable, but mostly Anglim. No detailed research into this group has been carried out, but one desendant has a DNA profile indicating relationship with Group 2.
Anglins of North Cork
Of all the research this has been the most neglected group and yet may be very important, as analysis of the County Cork scatter suggests their importance is second only to West Cork groups.
Besides identifying current residents, the information available in civil and church registers of the area; emigration records, and estate papers e.g. the Doneraile Rent books may help not just to open up the story of the area itself but help in the overall story of the Anglin name. However, one has to be aware not to mistake Angland for Anglin/m as Angland is a different surname with a different origin.
I am unaware of of any family or DNA research done on this area of Anglins.
In Griffiths the Anglims are confined to two poor law unions, Kilrush and Tulla. Kilrush is opposite Tarbert in Kerry. These towns, Tarbert and Kilrush, were guard stations (coastguard) for the entrance to the Shannon. It is known that a member of the Glanmire Anglins worked and lived in Tarbert and a Catherine was born there; it is also known another male member, Daniel, served in County Clare.
For this reason it is suggested the presence of Anglins in Clare is not a source of the Anglins but the results of movement from an origin in Cork. The Tarbert presence of the surname is even more confined and is present only in the town itself and did not spread though the county of Kerry. The spelling of the surname in Clare is usually Anglim, and in Tarbert it is often Anglin. However, I am unaware of any real family or DNA research done on these Anglims.
The spelling of the surname in Limerick seems to be of the Anglim form. A major study of a family tree of descendants from Limerick has been done by Chris Anglim in the USA. He states his line is traceable originally to County Cork. They have not been part of the USA DNA research as yet.
Being a city, and like Cork city, any Anglins found there would have their origins elsewhere. There is a Fr. Anglin St. Michaels of Dublin who died curator in November 1835, and also in the 19th century a gunsmith called Anglin.
This small line of Anglins is a different DNA line from other Anglins. While little study has been carried out on them, their presence in the 1800’s in that county is clear and shows up with tenuous links to the sea, guns and newsprint. Identification of descendants living abroad could be useful. Again no real research has been done here. I am unaware of any family tree research.
To identify within County Cork the source of the Anglin surname
This analysis is influenced by the Introductory article to the book, ‘Families of County Cork’ by Diarmuid O’Murchadha. I quote:
The outstanding 16th century source for the quarrying of information on Irish families, especially those of minor importance, is, of course, the 'Fiants,' in particular those of Elizabeth's reign’. The important thing about these Fiants is they furnish names and surnames of practically every able-bodied man in the countryside, and oftentimes his place of residence and occupation as well.
In the case of chiefs, heads of families, and their close relatives, this last was invariably given as 'gentleman.' One step below this rank came 'horseman,' followed by 'yeoman,' a title which indicated a semi-independent 'strong farmer' type, whereas a 'husbandman' was probably a less secure tenant-farmer. Terms such as 'labourer,' 'smith,' 'surgeon,' need no explanation, but at the bottom of the pile came 'kern' (Irish ceithearnach), a lightly-armed footsoldier, the material supplied by a chief to his overlord (or to the crown) in times of war and rebellion as (to use a modern term) cannon-fodder.
Frequently a pardon was granted to the head of a sept or family group and to all his relatives and followers who are specified in the list. This is of inestimable value when attempting to place a particular family name in its proper locality.
(This is something genealogists seek to do: indeed the name may still be flourishing today in those places – my words).
Despite all the plantations and upheavals throughout the centuries and all the incentives to migration provided by modern travel facilities, name-distribution in Co. Cork today is not all that different to what it was in Elizabethan times.
Plantations normally affected only those with the rank of gentleman or, perhaps, horseman… yet it was the mass of commoners, the silent majority of yeomen, husbandmen, labourers, and others who because they were not disturbed to the same degree, kept the family name extant from generation to generation… so a surname can persist in a given area even till today.
The scholar Ken Nichols felt the surname had a west Cork origin while Diarmuid O’Murchadha felt the origin may lie in north Cork (both were speaking from general knowledge and without investigating this particular surname). Influenced by their views a table with these specific headings was developed:
Early data from Fiants, Griffiths valuations, Wills, Lismore Papers and old documents gives the table substance. However, some comments are necessary: many Fiant place names are no longer in common use; the geographic bases of the major Cork families is already known cf. publication mentioned above, and while Griffiths Valuations belong to a later date (1850) it was an extensive survey, and so is used here.
The Table (blanks indicate a lack of knowledge)
This table indicates:
A Special Note On Clonakilty, Cloghnakilty And Kilgariffe
These three names refer to the same place in West Cork. The town of Clonakilty only came into being in the early 1600’s but there was a settlement there for generations. The research for the original report and for the further developments indicates the special importance of this geographic area in the story of the Anglin/Anglim/Hanglin surname. The reasons are:
Some of the documents examined in the preparation of this Chapter